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/* Bittering Oils */ Improved clarity of resins and oils
__NOTOC__==Hops=='''Hops ''' provide bitterness to balance the sweetness of [[Malt]] when making beer, adds flavoring oils and aromas, and also helps to stabilize and preserve beer. Hops used in brewing comes from the flowers of a plant called ''Humulus Lupuluslupulus''. The hop plant is a perrenial spiraling vine that requires most soil. The flowers of the hops, called ''cones'' are dried before use. These flowers are usually green in color with yellow ''lupulin'' glands between the petals that provide many of the oils.
===Types of Hops===
===Measuring Bitterness===
Hop bitterness is measured in ''[[International Bitterness Units''' ]] or ''IBU's''. One IBU is one part per million of ''isohumulone'' which is a bittering (alpha) acid. IBU's can be estimated when brewing a beer by several different formulas, the most popular of which are the ''Tinseth'', ''Rager'' and ''Garetz'' formulas. IBU's for light beers are generally in the 10-20 range, while dark flavorful beers such as stouts may have an IBU as high as 50. Some barley wines have IBU values of 100 or more to offset the extreme malty sweetness of the beer. See the [[Beer Styles]] BJCP guide for some typical IBU ranges for different styles of beer.
===Bittering Resins and Oils===Bittiness in beer is provided by oils resins released by the hops. The bittering oils battering resins of the hops are isomerized (rearranged) during the boil. Insoluable alpha acids (α-acids) are isomerized by the boil into more soluble and stable alpha acids. As the boil time increases, the bitterness released also increases. These alpha acids provide the majority of the bitterness in finished beer, as estimated by the Alpha Acid Units (AAUs) or Homebrew Bitterness Units (HBU's). A second component resin called beta acid also provides some bitterness. Additional compounds in The amount of bettering coming from beta acids depend on the degree of oxidation, or, how much oxygen the hops have been exposed to over time. Hop oil compounds provide both flavor, aroma and preservative qualities. They are soluble in water and easily boiled off. Dry hopping will allow one to impart these properties without the risk of boiling-them-off.
===Hops Storage===
The alpha and beta acids in hops are both vulnerable to oxidation which will decrease their effectiveness. Hops will degrade faster at temperatures above freezing. Hops should be refrigerated in your freezer, and sealed in an airtight container (ideally vacuum packed foil oxygen barrier container) to prevent oxidation.
===Hops Usage===
Hops can be used at many stages in the brewing process:
* '''Boil Hops''' - Hops used during the main boil to add bitterness and flavor to the beer.
* '''Aroma Hops''' - Hops added at the end of the boil to release aroma. Many aromatic oils in hops will boil off after a period of time, so hops added at the end of the boil maintain many aromatic qualities.
* '''Dry Hops''' - Hops added in the secondary fermentation, usually a day or two before bottling, primarily for aroma.
* '''Mash Hops''' - Hops added to the mash tun, effectively get steeped and can add some flavor though they usually contribute little to the bitterness of the beer.
* '''First Wort Hops''' - Hops added to the boiler as the wort is first being sparged. These hops effectively get steeped and then boiled with the main boil. First wort hopping results in a better blending of hops flavor with the wort though it generally reduces hop utilization slightly when compared to traditional boiled hops.
==Hop Varieties==
* [Insert a link to your hops page here[Ahtanum Hops]]* [[Amarillo Hops]]* [[Apollo Hops]]* [[Brewers Gold Hops]]* [[Bravo]]* [[Cascade Hops]]* [[Centennial Hops]]* [[Chinook Hops]]* [[Citra Hops]]* [[Cluster]]* [[Columbus Hops]]* [[Crystal Hops]]* [[Cluster]]* [[Delta]]* [[Eroica Hops]]* [[Galena Hops]]* [[Glacier Hops]]* [[Horizon Hops]]* [[Liberty Hops]]* [[Mount Ranier Hops]]* [[Nelson Sauvin]]* [[Nugget Hops]]* [[Pride of Ringwood]]* [[Saaz Hops]]* [[Simcoe Hops]]* [[Sterling Hops]]* [[Strisselspalt Hops]]* [[Styrian Goldings Hops]]* [[Summit Hops]]* [[Vanguard Hops]]* [[Warrior Hops]]* [[Zeus Hops]]
==See Also==
* [[Ingredients]]
* [[International Bitterness Units]]
* [[Technical|Technical Reference]]
* [[Beer Styles]]
* [[References]]
==External Links==
* [ BeerSmith Hops Reference Table]
* [http://enwww.wikipediabeersmith.orgcom/wikiblog/2008/04/25/brewing-hops-10-tips-for-surviving-the-hops-shortage/ Brewing Hops Wikipedia : 10 Tips for Surviving the Hops PageCrisis]
* [ Norm Pyle's Hops FAQ]
* [ Glenn Tinseth's Hop Page]